Balinese culture is not far moving from interaction with the nature of its environment. Balinese mindset in fulfilling the necessities of life, whether it is physical needs as well as spiritual needs which is an overview of the mindset of society so as to create the potential of the surrounding nature.
On this small island, the behavior of its people has its own characteristic in its daily behavior. The speaking Ordinance, language, dialect and communication attitude very clearly indicate the origin of the Territory. In the behavior of implementing religion and artistry, there seemed a local in that stood out from Each region in Bali.
Village-Kala, place-time and circumstances, these three elements are finally seen as elements of the diverse forming of Balinese behavior in their daily lives.
Although the culture of Balinese people has the characteristic of each region but its purpose is centered one way, that is offerings. In a literary temple they found justification for a distinction that had one purpose, “Bhineka Tunggal Ika” (Tan Hana Dharma Mangruwa varies one), none of these truths.
For the Balinese, a sincere offering is a manifestation of righteousness Or Dharma and that is where the Hindu religion gives way for his people to build karma.
Bali People’s Daily life
Balinese people, especially those of Hindu religion, are unique societies. Sealah Ordinary, Searang Balinese girl dancing with the supply and beautiful in “Banjar (Local Hall)” or in the temple, even in a hotel, when the previous afternoon he worked to paint the building wall or sweat in the market as a merchant.
The behavior of Bati’s community has two personalities, but the Balinese are more looking at it as behavior that undergoes business in building karma.
Talk about Swadharma or behavior as a position, held firmly by most Balinese people The Karma. Because it is very possible for women merchants who “meaningless” in the middle of the market crowd would later become the center of attention as a dancer Rejang during an offering in a ceremony in the temple.
When traced more deeply, such behaviour is very possible due to the order or structure of Balinese Hindu society.
Not only the pattern of the Majapahit Heritage Society was fully embraced but the local customs also gave color to the arrangement of the people of Bali.
This is what leads to often found different settings from one village With other villages but has the same attachment in a model of traditional village order.
Art Performance and Performing arts
It is often said by the cultural arts experts that Balinese art and culture tend to be created as an offering to the Supreme Creator who is colored with a high sense of devotion to the art.
If a traditional art work is capable of inflicting vibration or emitting traction, it can be understood because while creating it is driven by a desire to present a good work, away from the ego’s mind of copyright and selling value.
Balinese art and culture originally emerged as a proper obligation Performed by a specific group of professions in an effort to present a perfect devotion to God through religious activities.
Dance and Karawitan was created to reveal the expression of happiness to welcome the descent of the gods while the ceremony in the temple, fine art translated in paintings and sculptures always appear in various offerings of Sajen as a medium to connect spiritual communication while the song of the song is said to reveal puja and praise for the welfare bestowed by the gods.
Balinese people, besides the art actors, are also the connoisseurs Art that was very bigoted in its arts. In the art of theater, various plays that lubricated the creation of art are well packed so it is easy to enjoy and be listened to to fill their thinking horizons.
Past leaders also noticed that art activities as an effective medium to convey messages to the people of the inward text of a rapidly expanding literary art are giving a clear direction to the other art branches.
Therefore, in almost all branches of art, there is a clear sorting between the sacred arts and the Profan, from the art of offering to the performing arts.
When Contact with foreigners in Bali entered the era of tourism in the mid-1960, a plan certainly various entertainment means of tourists began for the sake of tourism.
The art of Balinese culture was also developed and in redesign again for the sake of culture so that the art can join the familiar tourism.
A. DANCE ART
The art of dance in Bali is closely related to religious processions. It is even believed that the age of Pakem tar. As old as the setting of Hindu religion.
Dewa L Ciwa who is believed by Hindus as Sang Hyang (Tunggal also described as IDewa Tari! with l sela’r ‘ Ciwa Nataraja in the gesture of dance movement which is interpreted as l as the power movement fills the space when creating the natural dance.
In the beginning, dances are being woven by the Pragina (dancer) is a type of sacred dance as an integral part of the ceremonial procession and is only when held religious ceremonies in Pura.
Furthermore, there are dances that complement a religious procession and even further developed into public communication media as well as a means of entertainment.
From the type and function, the art of dance in the broad meaning of the art of Karawitan (gamelan) that can be sorted in 3 groups, namely :
1. Wali (religious) dance
The following dance is performed in conjunction with a religious ceremony in a temple. This sacred/guardian dance is generally staged In the central courtyard of a temple (Jeroan/Purian) and this dance will not be performed on other events.
Dance devices such as clothing, masks or also barong is very sacred by the residents of his people and stored in a temple so that the presence of a special ceremony when taking from the storage, when to dance and when saving back.
There are times when sacred dance not only requires sacred places and devices but the dancers are required at the age of children and old age.
There are still many types of guardian dances in several villages and temples in Bali. The procession and requirements until now are still observed and executed properly.
2. Bebali Art (Ceremonial)
Bebali Dance is a type of Balinese dance that is also held at a religious ceremony and generally Bebali dance performed with a character related to the implementation of the ceremony.
Pajegan Topeng Dance, the Panca mask, Gambuh dance Drama and Wayang, for example, is the type of Bebali dance that is most often performed as an initing of a ceremony.
Bebali dance is usually performed in Jaba Tengah which is the space between the outer courtyard (Jaba Sisi) with the main page of the temple.
3. Balih-Balihan dance (perfomance)
Balih-Balihan dance is a development of the art of Wali and Bebali which is intended as a means of amusement with the plays and more free dance and clubbing creations.
Often this type of Balih-Balihan wears a popular lakontakon in the community At that time to open the opportunity to enter the audience’s emotions into the performance so that the audience is just as important as the dancers and the musicians in the performance.
Mask (Bondres), Drama Gong, Arja and Sendratari are a small part of the many kinds of Balih-Balihan art.
In the beginning, Balih-Balihan was staged at night at a ceremony on the outer courtyard of the temple (Jaba Sisi) for the purpose of providing entertainment and happines to the community but in the the development of Balih-Balihan performed without having to be related to religious ceremonies.
B. SOUND ARTS / GAMELAN
The actual dance art contains the sound and music elements. Arja dance and other types of dance dramas are a mix of vocal, motion and music.
Karawitan or Gambelan, for Balinese people, is a very Peking part in living religious life as well as cultural activities. Very rarely encountered a Hindu religious ceremony in Pura without accompaniment or dance that is commonly called Wewalen.
Similar to dance, Karawitan also has a sacred level to profane that determines its function in staging. As a creative development, the art of music or Karawitan Bali varies from vocal form acapella (Cak and Genjek), bamboo music to music with complete instruments in the form of Gong Kebyar and Gong Gede.
C. FINE ART
Art painting and sculpture or chisel art is part of the Balinese art which is very prominent because not only a mere decoration but Often used as part of Hindu ritual activities.
Art painting and sculpture art as well as sculptural or carving art is divided into two parts, namely classic and modern. The classical style is very visible in the puppet pattern, both form and theme that is ‘ painted ‘ in the painting or sculpture.
Balinese casic style paintings are only available in Kamasan village, Klungkung. The Kamasan painting takes the shape and theme of the puppet with bright colors.
The style of painting on the ceiling of Bale Kertagosa and Taman Gili Klungkung are relics of the kingdom of Klungkung thrusting Theme of the Mahabarata puppet.
Still sticking to the puppet style, there are senj statues, chisels and classic carvings, showing the same styles as the three-dimensional look.
A little different from the art of Kasik, sculpture is somewhat developed because of the needs of other art branches such as Topeng dance Art, Wayang Wong, and also the field of architecture.
In subsequent developments, the inclusion of outside influence in the Dutch colonial era, emerged modern art style. Not only themes, but scribble styles and media usage are more varied.
The style of Ubud, Pengosekan, Keliki and Rocks is the pioneer of the emergence of the Senj painted modem style.
Balinese artists as well as art, both in Bali and outside Bali, give new color in art development. From this movement, the world of Art of Bali is experiencing development, especially the consequences of often contact with tourism which causes increasingly growing the means of gallery and art shops along the tourist areas.
D. ART CRAFTS
In the field of Art, it is not only spinning around the satisfaction of doing the offerings. Certainly art and crafts become applied art that is finally needed by the community and also by tourists as souvenirs.
Woven crafts, carving and sculpture increasingly become a necessity in the daily life of Hindu society in Bali. Sokasi, Dulang, Bokor, earthenware, and also various other ceremonial supplies are now a living field for some of the Balinese people.
On the other hand, the creation and development of these art items turned out to be very attractive by tourists who come to Bali. Handicrafts of gold, silver, sculpture and wood carvings have even long been able to penetrate the international market.
With the artistic touch of Bali, various types of art and handicraft goods are able to provide opportunities for improvement Bali’s Economic Community.
Architecture in general can not be inserted into the art. Although in the end will be seen the beauty of the shape because there is a technical package and the same sense of space to weigh its balance with the art of facial.
The function of architecture for various activities and various wearers will produce different forms and faces so that it can be said that the architecture is the result of various interests (arts, technical and flavor) to be used to fulfill one of the 5 basic human needs (Sandang, Activities-architecture, health and education).
More especially traditional Balinese architecture that not only adheres to the pakem of art, technical and sense of space but there is a setting of philosophy of Adat and Hindu religion.
The procession processes the building materials-for example wood that comes from Pohoncertain-hinggamenjadielements of the building is a stage that must be played through the value of philosophy, customs and religion.
Trees with a certain height that when hewn down on the river, for example, can not be used as building materials because it will cause bad consequences for Wearer.
This rule of adat and religion is certainly the essence of giving protection to the environment to observe the borders of the river so that sustainability will be preserved.
In traditional Balinese architecture are very many rules and custom order and religious philosophy that must be understood and embraced by traditional architect Searang (Balinese architect called Undagi).
Therefore “Seoran § Undagi is essentially the main man who mestimampu understand the art, composition, proportions, technical, sense of space, religious philosophy ‘ customary rules (Awig-Awig) and duly understand the puja mantra because of the Undagi.
The religious procession when starting work. (Ceremony of ngerement of coral, period of “Implementation until the inauguration of the building (ceremony Pamelaspas). In carrying out its design, the Undagi is assisted by skilled personnel who are experts in their fields such as stonemason, wood, structure and Carver called Sangging.
If Bali is in the form of a variety of Balinese buildings, it is due to function, wearers and different areas so that the shape is different.
All the rules and settings of traditional Balinese architecture are collected in the ancient manuscript of Lontar, among others: Asta Bhumi, Asta Kosala-Kosali and various lontar about the procedure of implementation of the ceremony in the building.
F. TEXTILES AND CLOTHING
Up until penjaJ’ahan Dutch in Bali, Bati still use very simple clothing, even bare chest or just use a piece of cloth as a chest cover despite going to the temple for a ceremony.
At that time, only the nobility who wore the complete dress following the chest cover but seen from the type of fashion in those days was impressed there is a traditional fashion grouping Bati even though his appearance is still simple.
Clothing, for the Hindu community in Bali is not merely in the body but also installed on the building, Particularly sacred buildings during the ceremony.
In the implementation of a ceremony in the temple known as the ceremony stage Masang Busana or Masang Pengangge, which is putting up clothing, decorations and decorations in the temple building.
Basically, traditional Balinese fashion divided into 3 (three) groups, namely:
1. Busana Agung
Payas Agung means complete fashion with various decorations that are usually used during grand or grand ceremonies such as wedding ceremonies, cut gears and other grand ceremonies. Types of Gold thread ornaments (songket) and Gold Paint (Prada) on fabrics and jewellery Other gold is an integral part.
2. Busana Madya
Payas Madya level is more simple than the Agung Payas which is imposed on the implementation of a permanent ceremony such as the worship in the temple.
Nevertheless, the completeness and components are the same as that of Payas Agung and this fashion is not used for everyday.
5. Busana Alit
This type of fashion is usually used when doing preparatory work in a traditional activity.
The clothes used are the same as the everyday clothes, only on the bottom using a cloth (Wastra) and using a shawl wrapped in a side (selempod) as a sign that the wearer is doing customary activities.
Out of these three types of fashion groups developed various shapes and displays of Balinese fashion that adapted to the condition of each area both concerning fabric type, values of philosophy and art value applied to the fashion.
Some of the popular ones are Payas Agung, Lelunakan, Deeng, typical fashion from Tenganan Pegeringwais, Chamaya, Asak and other areas.
A typical thing of ethnicity is food. The nature and results of the Earth in the tropical Bali area and the daily life of Balinese people who are stained with art and religious ceremonies have a big influence on the typical food types of this region.
Rice as a staple food has become characteristic of the tropical communities in Asia, especially in Indonesia and the Balinese people consume rice as a staple food.
In relation to religious interests, the quality of Bali rice (white and red rice, glutinous and Injin) is good enough to support the copyrights of Balinese women to create Various types of food/cakes (Jaja Bali) Typical of Bali for the needs of offerings, both edible and only feed the form of religious symbols such as Sarad, Gebogan, Pajegan, and so forth.
With the habit of Balinese people on the flavor of harsh and spicy spices, food (side dishes) Bali is often not suitable for non-Balinese people of the type of food lawar sometimes mixed with blood and meat raw or half-cooked.
But now many restaurants and hotels tailor Balinese cuisine recipes, ‘ especially Lawar, to be enjoyed by the newcomers or travelers Nusantara or foreign countries such as not using blood, replace the use of daging’raw using chicken meat and ducks that are ripe and also use lighter seasoning.
PESTA KESENIAN BALI ( Bali Art Festivals )
June 20, 1979 PM, the people of Denpasar and also from some other areas in Bali spilled into Puputan Square in Surapati Street.
It was held by the Bali Arts Party Parade, which was first held. Although it is accustomed to the degree of art in their daily life in the temple or in Bale Banjar, organizing the Bali arts feast continues to suck the attention of the Balinese to get off the mountain watching the performance.
A joint degree from the tops of cultural arts 8 districts (then) in the Bali Arts feast Parade did open the eyes of residents Bali about the richness of cultural art that spread to the corners of Bali.
The diversity of Bali’s cultural art spread throughout Bali is what tickled Prof Ida Bagus Mantra, who then served as the governor of Bali, to summarize it in a single art performance.
Digging and preserving the potential of Balinese cultural art has even been heard by Ida Bagus Mantra while still serving as director general of Culture.
The idea of summarizing the art of Balinese culture has actually been seen when the local government of Bali in 1974 conducts the development of the Cultural Park (Art Center) In the village of Abian Kapas, Denpasar.
The construction of the cultural park and the Bali Arts party was then the same. Year after year the title of Bali Arts party held in Taman Budaya invites the community to witness the art of tradition and art creations of the artists of Bali.
The art form that previously rarely displayed is then always shown in the event of the Bali Arts party to be witnessed by the wider community.
In addition to dance and Karawitan art masket, literary art, fine art, craft arts and also the art of creation and contemporary is always included in the schedule of activities That lasted for a month.
The Bali Arts party is not only a cultural preservation event of Bali but also fill the tourism side of Bali.
The implementation of PKB (Pesta Kesenian Bali) in mid-year, around June until July, is a great time to encourage art performances as a tourism dish.
The execution during the holiday and the arrival of tourists put? the PKB event Become crowded visitors. Until the year 2011 Bali Arts Party has entered the age of 33 years.
The Balinese arts feast, in terms of the introduction and inheritance of cultural art seems to have been able to become one of the media relay Art for the Balinese people.